Policy Papers

Policy Papers

Please find below a listing with synopses of the Partnership for Peace Consortium's various policy recommendation papers, which were produced through the activities of our various Working and Study Groups. The policy recommendation papers cover topics of interest in international security.

Hybrid Conflicts as Emerging Security Challenge: Policy Considerations for International Security

Hybrid conflicts are complex phenomena that do not readily fit into today’s security policy frameworks. Further aggravating matters is (1) the absence of an accepted legal definition and (2) the use of conventional and nonconventional tools by combatants to achieve their ends often coupled with a blatant disregard for international law. Such practices impede the ability of policymakers to pre-empt and resolve hybrid conflicts within traditional policy frameworks.

Despite difficulties, policymakers can recognize certain characteristics of hybrid conflict, such as the coordinated use of conventional and non-conventional means in conjunction with the use of media and other force-multiplier technologies to reduce the power of state response. When facing hybrid conflicts policymakers would be well served to (1) consider means to enhance human and cultural intelligence, (2) improve early warning and enhance understanding of technological developments and the increased role of social media, and (3) adopt a more comprehensive approach to better enable institutions to respond to hybrid warfare.

Towards Europe?! Straddling Fault Lines and Choosing Sides in the South Caucasus

The on-going crisis in Ukraine simultaneously distracts and colors perceptions about recent events in the South Caucasus. The international community devotes as much attention on the Ukraine crisis as it has failed to devote on the conflicts in the South Caucasus. While the Ukraine crisis reminds experts of how regional tensions led to full-blown war twenty years ago, Western leaders seem to be oblivious of the fact that yet another frozen conflict is being concocted at Russia’s periphery, between the European Union and the Eurasian landmass. This also means that the West is no closer to a clearer understanding of the tensions in the South Caucasus, as the sources of those tensions recede ever further into the past, making resolution more difficult.

Emerging Security Challenges: Issues and Options for Consideration

This brief examines policy issues associated with Emerging Security Challenges and offers considerations for response.Innovation cannot be controlled but risk can be managed and mitigated. Throughout the 20th and emerging 21st century, governments have systematically underestimated the disruption possible from technology and scientific advances.

Bosnia-Herzegovina and Beyond: The Role of Civil Society in Supporting Democratization and Euro-Atlantic Integration in South East Europe

This policy paper examines the dynamics Civil Society Organizations (CSO) in South East Europe and provides recommendations on how to harmonize CSOs within the context of regional politics as well as the spectrum of regional players. South East Europe has a huge variety of CSOs: thousands of associations of citizens exist in the region, the majority without following explicit aims in the field of democratization or human rights. Generally, CSOs which are advocating a more democratic society, respect of human rights and individual freedom are generally more trusted by the citizens than the existing political parties. However, these CSOs are confronted with various barriers: these may be difficulties within their own organization structure, pressure from political authorities in their home countries as well as unfavourable arrangements with the international donors. Interest in cooperating with regional CSOs has decreased with international donors over the past years, which is partly due to a shift of interest to other regions and partly due to their discontent with the outcome of projects.

Meeting the Challenges of EU Membership and NATO Accession – Macedonia and her Neighbours

This policy paper examines the status of Macedonia's EU and NATO aspirations. Considered by many as the only success story of peaceful transformation in the Western Balkans in the early 2000s, Macedonia managed to emerge from the shades of the 2001 armed conflict and acquire EU candidate status in just four years. The first among the countries from the Western Balkans to sign a Stabilisation and Association Agreement in 2001, Macedonia today, however, is considerably lagging behind on its EU/NATO accession path.

Croatian Membership in the EU – Implications for the Western Balkans

This policy paper explores the effect of Croatia's EU membership on Southeast Europe, and view's the role of Croatia as a bridge between the EU and countries of the region aspiring towards EU membership.

Political Parties in South East Europe: Supporting Intra-State, Regional and European Consolidation?

This policy paper recognizes that the party system in the Western Balkans and South East Europe bears the standard problem of modern democracy: the inadequate political representation of its citizens by the traditional party system. As such the paper offers recommendations on means to support political development in the region.

Deconflicting Protracted Conflicts in the South Caucasus: The Role of the EU and NATO

This policy paper examines the geopolitical dynamics of conflicts in the South Caucasus and offers policy recommendations that consider the geopolitical realities. Additionally, the policy recommendations take into account perspectives of various internal and external players, thereby representing recommendations that can be be viewed as attractive by various parties.

What Kind of Sovereignty? Examining Alternative Governance Methods in the South Caucasus

This paper examines the nature of sovereignty in the South Caucasus and offers alternative interpretations of sovereignty which may prove useful in conflict mitigation.

Building Confidence in the South Caucasus: Strengthening the EU’s and NATO’s Soft Security Initiatives

This policy paper examines the positive attributes of NATO and EU soft security initiatives and offers recommendations on how the continuation and expansion of such initiatives can foster regional stability.

Convergence of Crime, Terror, and Corruption: Policy Recommendations

This brief presents five policy recommendations for countering convergence of crime, terror, and corruption, as they were discussed during the Combating Terrorism Workshop held at the George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, Sep. 23-24, 2013. (Content is prepared by and based on a presentation to the group by Dr. Elena Kovalova, Professor of National Security Studies, National Defense University, Washington D.C., USA, and a member of the PfPC Combating Terrorism Working Group).

Crisis in Syria: Background and Six Recommendations for Decision Makers

This brief presents six policy recommendations for containing and countering growing terrorism-related threats and radicalization generated by the protracted conflict in Syria, as they were elaborated during the PfPC Combating Terrorism Workshop held at the Marshall Center in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, Sept. 23-24, 2013.
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