This background paper examines policy issues associated with emerging security challenges arising from the impact of big data on areas of societal importance and offers considerations for response. The advent of big data creates opportunities in scientific discovery, technological innovation, economic prosperity, societal well being, and many other areas of endeavor. Big data also raises challenges in numerous areas including: data management, data validity, and data security/protection. It also raises challenges in associated areas to include: individual privacy versus security/law enforcement needs; and energy consumption needs. Also important is governance and use of big data, including collaborative arrangements among actors.