Background Papers

Background Papers

Below is a listing of Background Papers that the Partnership for Peace Consortium has written on various subjects related to defense education, defense institution building, and international security.


Transatlantic Security: Securing the Post Covid Future provides recommendations for national, EU and NATO decision makers for responding to security challenges in a COVID and post COVID world. The report and its seven key policy recommendations are the outcome of a 50-hour, online interactive brainstorming event that addressed national security and geopolitical implications of COVID-19 in the transatlantic region.

Gender-Responsive Evaluation In Defense Education

This paper examines approaches to evaluation of defense education programs that are responsive to gender.

Factsheet on NATO Documents and Initiatives on Gender and Security

In the last decade, NATO has shown keen interest in integrating gender in military operations as well as empowering women throughout its operations and internal structures, led by the advances in women’s integration in some of its key militaries. This paper highlights key NATO documents addressing gender in defense education.

Teaching Gender To The Military - In The Classroom And Through Advanced Distributed Learning

Educating the military on gender issues has emerged in recent years as a new and important priority for NATO states and partners. This paper presents findings on defense education methods to teach gender to the military.

Integrating Gender Defense Education Curriculum

Educating the military on gender issues has emerged over the last seven years as a new and important priority for NATO states and partners. This paper presents findings on defense education activities of the Security Sector Reform (SSR) and Defense Education Development Working Group (EDWG) of the Partnership for Peace Consortium in partnership with the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF).

Designing Lessons for Teaching Gender to the Military

A key aspect of how to integrate gender in military structures and operations is gender education and training for the military. Both the Security Sector Reform (SSR) and Defense Education Development Working Group (EDWG) of the Partnership for Peace Consortium have engaged on the topic of gender in military education within their respective activities in recent years. Building on this activity, the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF), collaborated with the EDWG and partnered with the George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies to host a workshop dedicated to the topic of teaching gender to the military.

3D Printing & Biotechnology: Possible Security Implications for NATO, Its Partners, and Beyond

Developments in 3D Printing and Biotechnology may appear to be quite unrelated; in fact they share commonalities. Both have the potential to greatly benefit the societies we live in - from developing new industrial processes through to enabling treatments for diseases and improvements in healthcare unimaginable just a few years ago.

Indeed, developments in 3D Printing mean new techniques can be used positively in Biotechnology, prosthetics, and medical devices. A 3D 'bioprinter' can even be used to produce 'bioprinted' human organs. At the same time, 3D ‘bioprinting’ could also be used by those who wish to inflict great harm on our societies. Both 3D printing and biotech are apt to simultaneously empower many - who would not otherwise have the means - to acquire dual-use technology and their means of production. Such capabilities are likely to be used by states, terrorists and criminal actors, creating new security challenges.

Technology Innovation and Its Impact: Policy Considerations for International Security

”Emerging Security Challenges” is an all-encompassing term used to describe a set of non-traditional threats and risks that increasingly impact our security policy agendas. Many of these are linked to new or evolving technologies – requiring careful consideration of their potential implications. Addressing such issues requires knowing and understanding new technologies and – in particular – the way in which they impact security policy making. This is easier said than done, as there is constant and rapid innovation which policy makers have to be aware and keep track of. Developments in remote warfare, 3D-printing, nanotechnology, big data, and the “Internet of things” are all dependent on advances in information technology that herald potentially disruptive political and societal change.

Big Data and Emerging Security Challenges: Issues Facing Decision Makers

This background paper examines policy issues associated with emerging security challenges arising from the impact of big data on areas of societal importance and offers considerations for response. The advent of big data creates opportunities in scientific discovery, technological innovation, economic prosperity, societal well being, and many other areas of endeavor. Big data also raises challenges in numerous areas including: data management, data validity, and data security/protection. It also raises challenges in associated areas to include: individual privacy versus security/law enforcement needs; and energy consumption needs. Also important is governance and use of big data, including collaborative arrangements among actors.

Sunni Foreign Fighters in Syria: Background, Facilitating Factors and Select Responses

This background paper is based on a presentation during a partnership for Peace Consortium (PfPC) Combating Terrorism Workshop held in Brussels April 23-25, 2014 on the topic of foreign fighters. The paper discusses reasons driving the phenomenon and highlights some legal responses taken by Western European states to stem flow of foreign fighters to Syria and to reduce any potential disruptive activities upon return to their countries of departure.